I think a lot of violent conflicts happen as a result of pseudo-toughness. That is especially the case in regards to fights between young people and poor or blue-collar people. People trying to be tough will start and get into fights and violent conflicts. For example, I assume most bar brawls and schoolyard fights happen because the people involved want to be or seem tough. In their desperate attempt at toughness, they attack others when they would be better off minding their own business, and they fight when it would be wiser to walk away. To explore the issue more fully, I have written and posted an article about destructive pseudo-toughness at my philosophy forums. Check it out: Causes of Self-Destructive Attempts at Toughness
Of course, not all violence and victimization is caused by people try to be tough. I think the other main cause is the desire for financial profit. For example, I assume the desire for profit is the foremost motivation of robbery and corporate crime.
What do you think?